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红外光谱定量分析方法
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TIANJINSHINENGPUKEJIYOUXIANGONGSI

时间: 2019-01-13 浏览量: 46

红外光谱定量分析方法有哪些?

(一)单一组分样品的定量分析方法

1.工作曲线法

悠洋棋牌YONGHONGWAIGUANGPUDINGLIANGSHI,WANGWANGSUOYONGXIAFENGJIAOKUAN,GUANGDEDANSEXINGCHA,YONGZHIJIEJISUANFAJINXINGCEDINGBUYIDEDAOZHUNQUEDEJIEGUO,TONGCHANGCAIYONGGONGZUOQUXIANFA。GONGZUOQUXIANDEHENGZUOBIAOWEIYANGPINDENONGDU,ZONGZUOBIAOWEIDUIYINGFENXIPUDAIDEXIGUANGDU。GONGZUOQUXIANSHIYOUCELIANGYIXILIEYIZHINONGDUDEBIAOZHUNYANGPINDEDAODE,ZAIZHIZUOGONGZUOQUXIANHECEDINGYANGPINSHIBIXUZAITONGYIYETICHIZHONGJINXING。ZAIZHENGCHANGQINGKUANGXIA,RUGUOCELIANGHECAOZUOTIAOJIANXUANZEHESHI,BAOCHIYIQICAOZUOTIAOJIANHENGDING,SHIYONGXIANGTONGDEYETICHI,JIUKEYIDEDAOZHUNQUEDEJIEGUO。


图片1.png

2.比例法

悠洋棋牌ZAIYOUXIEQINGKUANGXIA,YAOQIUFENXIERYUANHUNHEWUZHONGLIANGGEZUFENDEXIANGDUIHANLIANG,LIRU:FENXIERYUANGONGJUWUHUOERYUANYIGOUTIHUNHEWU,ZHEISHIKEYICAIYONGBILIFA。DUIYUERYUANTIXI,RUOLIANGZUFENDINGLIANGPUDAIBUZHONGDIE,ZE:


WechatIMG242.jpeg


K值可由标准样品测得,R是被测样品二组分定量谱帯峰顶处的吸光度比值,由此就可以计算c1和c2。若测定样品的浓度变化范围大,K值往往是不恒定的,这时可以R对c1/c2定未知样品的R值,由图求c1/c2



3.内标法

悠洋棋牌DANGYONGAOHUAJIAYAPIANHUOYOUHUFA、YEMOFASHI,YINWEIGUANGTONGLUHOUDUBUYIQUEDING,ZAIYOUXIEQINGKUANGXIAKECAIYONGFA。NEIBIAOFASHIBILIFADETESHUQINGKUANG。ZHEIGEFANGFASHIXUANZEYIBIAOZHUNHUAHEWU,TADETEZHENGXISHOUFENGYUYANGPINDEFENXIFENGHUBUGANRAO。QUYIDINGLIANGDEBIAOZHUNWUZHIYUYANGPINHUNHE,JIANGCIHUNHEWUZHICHENGXIUHUAJIAPIANHUOYOUHU,HUIZHIHONGWAIPUTU,ZEYOU:


As=asbscs, Ar=arbrcr


将两式相除,因么bs=br,则得:


WechatIMG243.jpeg


TONGCHANGSHIJIANGYANGPINHENEIBIAOANBUTONGBILIHUNHEZUOGONGZUOQUXIAN。


悠洋棋牌ZAIXUANYONGNEIBIAOSHI,YINGKAOLVXIALIEJIDIAN:①QIHONGWAIGUANGPUBIJIAOJIANDAN,BUGANRAOYANGPINCEDING:②REWENDING,BUSHOU:③YICHUNHUA;④JUYOUBUSHOUYANGPINPUDAIGANRAODEQIANGPUDAI:⑤SHIHEYUYANGPINZHIBEIJISHU。


常用的内标物有:Pb(SCN)2      2045cm—1;Fe(SCN)2     1635cm—1;KSCN    2100cm—1;NaN3    640cm—1,2120cm—1;C6Br6   1300cm—1,1255cm—1




(二)多组分样品的定量分析

1.解联立方程方法

悠洋棋牌DUOZUFENYANGPINDINGLIANGFENXIDEJINGDIANFANGFASHIJIELIANLIFANGCHENGZU,GAIFAZHUYAOYONGYUCHULIERYUANCHENGSANYUANHUNHETIXI,RUOFANGCHENGZUCHUXIAN“BINGTAI”SHI,WANGWANGCHUXIANJIAODADEPIANCHA,WEIBIMIANZHEIZHONGXIANXIANG,YINGKAOLVYIXIATIAOJIAN:

①ZAIFENXIFENGWEIZHICHUDEXIGUANGDUADUINONGDUcDEGUANXIJINLIANGFUHEXISHOUDINGLV:

②FENXIFENGCHUGEZUFENZHIJIANDEXISHOUXISHUCHABIEYAODA

③FENXIFENGDEWEIZHIYINGJINLIANGXUANZAI“FENGJIAN”,ERBUYAOXUANZE“FENGJIAN”WEIZHI:

④JINLIANGXUANZEGAIZUFENDETEZHENGFENGZUOWEIFENXIFENGHUOXUANZEGAIZUFENDEXIANGDUIJIAOQIANGFENGWEIFENXIFENG。



2.差示法

GAIFAKEYONGYUCELIANGYANGPINZHONGDEWEILIANGZAZHI,LIRUYOULIANGZUFENAHEBDEHUNHEWU,WEILIANGZUFENADEPUDAIBEIZHUYAOZUFENBDEPUDAIYANZHONGGANRAOHUOWANQUANYANBI,ZHEISHIKEYILIYONGCHASHIFALAICELIANGWEILIANGZUFENA。ZAOQIZHUYAOCAIYONGGUANGXUECHAPUJISHU,JIZAICANBIGUANGLUZHONGFANGRUZHIHANYOUBZUFENYANGPINDERONGYE,ZAIBZUFENDEGUANGPUZHONGXUANZEYITIAOBUSHOUAZUFENPUDAIGANRAODEPUDAIZUOWEIBUCHANGBIAOZHUN,ZHUJIANGAIBIANCANBIGUANGLUZHONGYETICHIDEHOUDU,ZHIZHILIANGGUANGLUZHONGBZUFENDEXISHOUXIANGDENG。JICINEIBIAOPUDAIZAICELIANGDEGUANGPUZHONGWANQUANXIAOSHI,QIHOUZAIAZUFENFENXIDAIQUNEISAOMIAO,JIUKEYIBABZUFENPUDAIDEGANRAOQUDIAO,KEZHIJIECELIANGAZUFENFENXIPUDAIDEXIGUANGDU。DANZHEISHIAZUFENFENXIPUDAIDEQIANGDUHENRUO,KESHIYONGZONGZUOBIAOKUOZHAN,YITIGAOCELIANGZHUNQUEDU。DANGUANGXUECHAPUJISHUSHOUXISHOUCHITEXINGDEYINGXIANGHENDA。ZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONGYUANYUANBUNENGMANZUXUYAO,SUIZHEJISUANJIDEFAZHAN,MUQIANZAIHENDUOHONGWAIGUANGPUYIZHONGDOUPEIYOUNENGJINXINGCHAPUDEJISUANJIRUANJIANGONGNENG,LINGWAIDUICHAYUQIANDEGUANGPUCAIYONGLEIJIAPINGJUNSHUJUCHULIJISHU,DUISUODECHAPUTUJINXINGPINGHUACHULIHEZONGZUOBIAOKUOZHAN,YINERKEYIDEDAOSHIFENYOULIANGDECHAPUTU,WEIYINGYONGCHASHIFAYUDINGLIANGFENXITIGONGLEHENHAODETIAOJIAN。



3.化学计量学方法

悠洋棋牌MUQIANCHANGYONGDEHUAXUEJILIANGXUEQIUJIELIANLIFANGCHENGZUDEFANGFAYOUSHIDUOZHONG,KECANYUEWENXIAN。MEIYIZHONGFANGFADOUGEYOUQITEDIANHESHIYONGFANWEI,KEGENJUYIXIAZHIBIAOJINXINGXUANZE:

①JISUANJIEGUODEZHUNQUEDU;

②JISUANSHIJIAN;

③DUIFANGCHENGSHUMUDEYILAIXING

悠洋棋牌④DUIGUANGPUDINGLIANGFENGWEIZHIXUANZEDEYILAIXING

⑤DUIBINGTAIFANGCHENGDESHIYINGXING

⑥YOUYUHUAXUEYUANYINZAOCHENGDETIXIFEIXIANXINGSUOYAOQIUDETEDINGJIEFA。



4.红外定量分析的绝对标准

YOUYUHONGWAIGUANGPUZHONGMEIYITIAOPUDAIDEXISHOULVDOUSHIBUTONGDE,YINCI,ZAIDADUOSHUQINGKUANGXIA,HONGWAIGUANGPUDINGLIANGGONGZUOXUYAOHEQITAFENXIFANGFAHUOBIAOZHUNWUDUIZHAO,YIDEDAOJUEDUIDECELIANGSHUJU。


悠洋棋牌HONGWAIDINGLIANGFENXIXIAOZHUNDEFANGFAHENDUO,ZHUYAOYOURUXIAJIZHONG:

悠洋棋牌(1)HUAXUEFENXIFAZAICELIANGGAOJUWUDEDUANJI(RUSUOJI、QIANGJI)SHI,KECAIYONGHUAXUEDIDINGFANGFA:ZAICELIANGMOUXIEGONGJUWU(RUBINGXIJINGHUOLVYIXIDEGONGJUWU)DEZUFENSHI,KECAIYONGYUANSUFENXIFANGFA,CONGDANHUOLVDEHANLIANGKEJISUANCHUGONGJUWUDEZUFENBI


(2)HECIGONGZHENFASHIYONGHDEHECIGONGZHENBOPUYICELIANG,QIGEPUXIANDEQIANGDUHEDUIYINGDEHYUANZISHUMUCHENGZHENGBI,YINCIKEDEDAOJUEDUIDECELIANGJIEGUO,KEYONGLAIZUOWEIHONGWAIDINGLIANGDEBIAOZHUN。


(3)FANGSHEXINGTONGWEISUFAZAICELIANGGONGJUWU(RUYIXI-BINGXIGONGJUWU)DEZUFENBISHI,KEYIHECHENGMOUXIEDAIYOUCBIAOJIDANTI(YIBANWEIYIXI)DEGONGJUWU。ZHEIZHONGGONGJUWUDEHONGWAIGUANGPUHEYUANLAIDEXIANGTONG,KEZUOHONGWAICELIANG,ERGONGJUWUDEJUEDUIZUFENBIKEYOUFANGSHEXINGCELIANGJUEDING。CONGZHEIZHONGGONGJUWUDEHONGWAIDINGLIANGCELIANGSUODEDAODEPUDAIXISHOULVHUOXISHOULVZHIBIKEZHUANYONGDAOYIBANDEGONGJUWUZHONG。YONGZHEIZHONGFANGFASUOCEDEDESHUJUSHIHENJINGQUEDE。


悠洋棋牌(4)JUNJUWUDEHUNHEWUJINGCHANGYINGYONGYIDINGPEIBIDEJUNJUWUDEHUNHEWUZUOWEICELIANGGONGJUWUZUFENBIDEJUEDUIBIAOZHUN。ZHEISHIYIZHONGHENJIANBIANDEFANGFA,DANYOUSHIBUGOUJINGQUE。


悠洋棋牌(5)MOXINGHUAHEWUMOXINGHUAHEWUSHIYIZHONGTESHUXUANDINGDEHUAHEWU,QIJIEGOUHESUOCELIANGDEGAOJUWUMOUGETEDINGJITUANXIANGSI。RUCAIYONGZHENGWUCHUNZUOWEICELIANGQIANGJIFENGTOUDEJUDINGERXIZHONGQIANGJIHANLIANGDEMOXINGHUAHEWU。)WUXUBIAOZHUNSHIYANGDEHONGWAIGUANGPUDINGLIANGFANGFA。


悠洋棋牌GAIFANGFAJIYUTONGSHICEDINGDALIANGZUCHENGGEYIDEDAICESHIYANGDEGEDINGLIANGPUDAIDEXIGUANGDU,YUNYONGZUIXIAOERCHENGFAQIUGEZUFENDEDINGLIANGPUDAIXISHOUXISHUDEZUIJIAZHI,YICIJISUANGESHIYANGDEZUCHENG。XIANYIERZUFENTIXILAISHUOMINGQIDINGLIANGYUANLI。

悠洋棋牌SHELIANGZUFENDEDINGLIANGPUDAIBICIBUGANRAO,ZEDUIZUFEN1DE:


A1=a1c1c1b


悠洋棋牌SHIZHONG,A1WEIZUFEN1ZAIQIDINGLIANGPUDAICHUDEXIGUANGDU;a1WEIZUFEN1ZAIQIDINGLIANGPUDAICHUDEXISHOUXISHUcWEIRONGYEZONGNONGDU,mol/LHUOg/L;c1WEIZUFEN1ZAISHIYANGZHONGHANLIANG,YIMOERFENSHUHUOZHILIANGFENSHUBIAOSHI;bWEIXISHOUCHIHOUDU,cm。


令                                                       WechatIMG244.jpeg


所以                                                           A01=a1c1


同样对于组分2有                                       A02=a2c2


因混合物中只有两组分,故                       c1+c2=1


所以                                                    WechatIMG245.jpeg


SHEYOUmGEZUCHENGGEYIDEDAICESHIYANG,ZEDEDAORUXIADETIAOJIANFANGCHENGZU

WechatIMG246.jpeg



YUNYONGZUIXIAOERCHENGFAYUANLI,JIANGTIAOJIANFANGCHENGZUBIANHUANCHENGBIAOZHUNFANGCHENGZU,DE:


WechatIMG247.jpeg



解上诉方程,即可得a1和a2,由此即可求得c1和c2

GENJUTONGYANGDEYUANLI,KECESANZUFENHUOGENGDUOZUFENHANLIANG。

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