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复盘一下关于红外吸收光谱分析
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TIANJINSHINENGPUKEJIYOUXIANGONGSI

时间: 2020-06-28 浏览量: 91

概述内容

红外光谱分析法是一种常用的物质定量分析和化合物结构鉴定方法。它是由于有机物分子选择性地吸收红外光的某些频率的能量,利用iCAN9傅立叶红外光谱仪记录能量吸收与波长或波数的对应关系所形成的吸收谱带。红外光谱可划分为近红外(0.78~2.5μm),中红外(2.5~50μm)和远红外(50~1000μm)三个波段。

红外光谱法紫外吸收光谱分析法、质谱法和核磁共振波谱法一起,被称为四大谱学方法,已成为有机化合物结构分析的重要手段。

1. 红外光谱分析法概述

1.1 FAZHANLICHENG

19世纪初,英国科学家赫谢尔发现红外线。20世纪初,人们进一步系统地了解了不同官能团具有不同红外吸收频率这一事实,1947年以后出现了自动记录式红外吸收光谱仪,1960年出现了光栅代替棱镜作色散元件的第二代红外吸收光谱仪,但它仍是色散型的仪器,分辨率、灵敏度还不够高,扫描速度也比较慢,随着计算机科学的进步,1970年以后出现了傅里叶变换红外光谱仪,解决了光栅型仪器固有的弱点,使仪器的性能得到了极大的提高。70年代末,出现了激光红外光谱仪,共聚焦显微红外光谱仪等。现在红外吸收光谱仪还与其他仪器(如气相色谱、高效液相色谱)联用,更加扩大了应用范围,利用计算机存储及检索光谱,分析更为方便、快捷。因此,红外光谱已成为现代分析化学和结构化学不可缺少的重要工具。

1.2 HONGWAIGUANGPUQUDEHUAFEN

HONGWAIGUANGPUZAIKEJIANGUANGQUHEWEIBOQUZHIJIAN,QIBOZHANGFANWEIDAZHIWEI0.78~1000μm。XIGUANSHANGJIANGHONGWAIGUANGQUFENWEISANGEQU:JINHONGWAIGUANGQU、ZHONGHONGWAIGUANGQU、YUANHONGWAIGUANGQU。SANGEQUDEBOZHANG(BOSHU)FANWEIHEPINLVRUBIAOSUOSHI:

红外光谱区

1.3 HONGWAIGUANGPUTUDEBIAOSHIFANGFA

HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUZHONG,KEYONGBOZHANGλ、PINLVvHEBOSHUσLAIBIAOSHIXISHOUPUDAIDEWEIZHI。YOUYUFENZIZHENDONGDEPINLVSHUZHIJIAODA(SHULIANGJIYIBANWEI1013),SHIYONGQILAIBUFANGBIAN,TONGCHANGXUANYONGBOZHANGλ(μm)HUOBOSHUσ(cm-1)LAIBIAOSHI,TAMENZHIJIANDEGUANXIWEI

NENGLIANGYUBOSHUCHENGZHENGBI,YINCI,CHANGYONGBOSHUZUOWEIHONGWAIGUANGPUTUDEHENGZHOUBIAODU。HONGWAIGUANGPUTUDEZONGZUOBIAOBIAOSHIHONGWAIXISHOUDEQIANGRUO,CHANGYONGTOUGUANGLV(T)BIAOSHI,T-σTUSHANGXISHOUQUXIANDEFENGJIANXIANGXIA,JUBENYIXIDEHONGWAIGUANGPUTURUTUSUOSHI。

聚苯乙烯薄膜的红外光谱

2.红外光谱分析的特点

HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUFENXIFASHITONGGUOYANJIUWUZHIJIEGOUYUHONGWAIXISHOUZHIJIANDEGUANXI,JINERSHIXIANDUIWEIZHISHIYANGDEDINGXINGJIANDINGHEDINGLIANGCEDINGDEYIZHONGFENXIFANGFA。HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUYONGXISHOUFENGPUDAIDEWEIZHIHEQIANGDUJIAYIBIAOZHENG,SHIGUANGPUDINGXINGHEDINGLIANGFENXIDEJICHU。HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUYOUYIXIAJIGETEDIAN:

1. MEIZHONGHUAHEWUJUNYOUHONGWAIXISHOU,YOUJIHUAHEWUDEHONGWAIGUANGPUNENGTIGONGFENGFUDEJIEGOUXINXI;

2. RENHEQITAI、YETAIHEGUTAIYANGPINJUNKEJINXINGHONGWAIGUANGPUCEDING,ZHEISHIQITAYIQIFENXIFANGFANANYIZUODAODE;

3. CHANGGUIHONGWAIGUANGPUYIQIJIEGOUJIANDAN,JIAGEBUGUI;

4. HONGWAIGUANGPUCEDINGDEYANGPINYONGLIANGSHAO,CEDINGSUDUKUAI,YIQICAOZUOJIANBIAN、ZHONGXIANXINGHAO。

HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUJUYOUGAODUDETEZHENGXING,CHUGUANGXUEYIGOUWAI,MEIYOULIANGZHONGHUAHEWUDEHONGWAIGUANGPUWANQUANXIANGTONGDE。HONGWAIGUANGPUZHONGWANGWANGJUYOUJIZUXIANGGUANFENGKEYIXIANGHUZUOZHENGERZENGQIANGLEDINGXINGHEJIEGOUFENXIDEKEKAOXING,YINCIHONGWAIGUANGPUYOUHUAHEWU“ZHIWEN”ZHICHENG,SHIJIANDINGYOUJIHUAHEWUHEJIEGOUFENXIDEZHONGYAOGONGJU。

3. 红外吸收光谱仪(iCAN9傅立叶红外光谱仪

3.1 SESANXINGHONGWAIGUANGPUYIDEZHUYAOBUJIANJIGONGZUOYUANLI

3.1.1 SESANXINGHONGWAIGUANGPUYIDEZHUYAOBUJIAN

SESANXINGHONGWAIGUANGPUYISHIYOUGUANGYUAN、XISHOUCHI、DANSEQI、JIANCEQIYIJIJILUXIANSHIZHUANGZHIDENGWUBUFENZUCHENG。

1. GUANGYUAN

HONGWAIGUANGYUANSHINENGGOUFASHEGAOQIANGDULIANXUHONGWAIFUSHEDEWUTI。CHANGYONGDEZHUYAOYOUNENGSITE(Nernst)DENGHEGUITANBANG。NENGSITEDENGSHIYONGYANGHUAGAO、YANGHUAYIHEYANGHUATUSHAOJIEERCHENGDEZHONGKONGBANGHUOSHIXINBANG。GONGZUOWENDUYUE1700℃,ZAICIGAOWENXIADAODIANBINGFASHEHONGWAIXIAN。DANZAISHIWENXIASHIFEIDAOTI,YINCIZAIGONGZUOZHIQIANYAOYURE。GUITANBANGSHIYOUTANHUAGUISHAOJIEERCHENGDE,GONGZUOWENDUZAI1200℃~1500℃。QIYOUDIANSHIJIANGU,FAGUANGMIANJIDA,SHOUMINGZHANG。

2. DANSEQI

DANSEQIDEZUOYONGSHIBATONGGUOYANGPINCHIHECANBICHIDEFUHEGUANGSESANCHENGDANSEGUANG,ZAISHEDAOJIANCEQISHANGJIAYIJIANCE。SESANYUANJIANYOULENGJINGHEGUANGZHALIANGZHONGLEIXING。

3. JIANCEQI

REJIANCEQIFENWEISANLEI:ZHENKONGREDIANOU、REDIANJIANCEQIHEGUANGDIANDAOJIANCEQI。

ZHENKONGREDIANOU:GENJUREDIANOUDELIANGDUANDIANYOUYUWENDUBUTONGCHANSHENGWENCHAREDIANSHIZHEIYIYUANLI,RANGHONGWAIGUANGZHAOSHEREDIANOUDEYIDUAN,SHILIANGDUANDIANJIANDEWENDUBUTONG,ERCHANSHENGDIANSHICHA。YIBANYONGYUSESANXINGYIQI。

REDIANJIANCEQI:TAYONGLIUSUANSANGANTAI(JIANCHENGTGS)DEDANJINGBOPIANZUOWEIJIANCEYUANJIAN。TGSDEJIHUAXIAOYINGYUWENDUYOUGUAN,WENDUSHENGGAO,JIHUAQIANGDUJIANGDI。REDIANJIANCEQIDETEDIANSHIXIANGYINGSUDUHENKUAI,MUQIANSHIYONGZUIGUANGFANDEJINGTICAILIAOSHIDAOHUALIUSUANSANGANTAI(DTGS)。

GUANGDIANDAOJIANCEQI:InSb、InAs、PbSeDENGBANDAOTICAILIAO,SHOUGUANGZHAOSHEHOUDAODIANXINGBIANHUAERCHANSHENGXINHAO。GUANGJIANCEQIDELINGMINDUBIREJIANCEQIGAOJIBEI,DANXUYAOYEDANLENGQUE。

4. XISHOUCHI

由于玻璃、石英等对红外光均有吸收,因此红外光谱吸收池窗口一般用一些盐类的单晶作为透光材料制作而成,如NaCl、KBr、Csl等。这些材料易吸潮,操作环境应干燥。

3.1.2 SESANXINGHONGWAIGUANGPUYIDEGONGZUOYUANLI

GUANGYUANFUSHEBEIFENCHENGDENGQIANGDUDELIANGSHU:YISHUTONGGUOYANGPINCHI,LINGYISHUTONGGUOCANBICHI。TONGGUOCANBICHIDEGUANGSHUJINGSHUAIJIANQIYUTONGGUOYANGPINCHIDEGUANGSHUHUIHEYUQIEGUANGQICHU。QIEGUANGQISHILIANGGUANGSHUZAIJINGBANYUANSHANXINGJINGDIAOZHIHOUJINRENDANSEQI,JIAOTILUODAOJIANCEQISHANG。iCAN9FULIYEHONGWAIGUANGPUYIRUOSHIYANGZAIMOUYIBOSHUDUIHONGWAIGUANGYOUXISHOU,LIANGGUANGSHUDEQIANGDUJIUBUPINGHENG,YINCIJIANCEQICHANSHENGYIGEJIAOBIANXINHAO。GAIXINHAOJINGFANGDA、ZHENGLIUHOU,HUISHIGUANGSHUZHEDANGCANBIGUANGSHU,ZHIZHILIANGGUANGSHUQIANGDUXIANGDENG。GUANGSHUDEYIDONGLIANDONGJILUBI,HUACHUYIGEXISHOUFENG。YINCIFENGUANGYUANJIANZHUANDONGDEQUANGUOCHENGJIUDEDAOYIZHANGHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUTU,RUTU。

色散型红外光谱仪的工作原理图

3.2 FULIYEBIANHUANHONGWAIGUANGPUYIDEZHUYAOBUJIANJIGONGZUOYUANLI

iCAN9FULIYEHONGWAIGUANGPUYIMEIYOUSESANYUANJIAN,ZHUYAOYOUGUANGYUAN、MAIKEERXUNGANSHEYI、SHIYANGCHARUZHUANGZHI、JIANCEQI、JISUANJIHEJILUYIDENGBUFENZUCHENG。

色散型红外光谱仪(上)与干涉型红外光谱仪(下)原理图

FULIYEBIANHUANHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUYIDEHEXINBUFENSHIMAIKEERXUNGANSHEYI,TU3SHITADEGUANGXUESHIYIHEGONGZUOYUANLITU。YOUGUANGYUANFACHUDEHONGWAIGUANGXIANJINRUGANSHEYI,GANSHEYIZHUYAOYOUHUXIANGCHUIZHIPAILIEDEGUDINGFANSHEJING(DINGJING)HEKEYIDONGFANSHEJING(DONGJING)YIJIYULIANGFANSHEJINGCHENG45°JIAODEFENGUANGBANZUCHENG。FENGUANGBANSHIZHAOSHEZAITASHANGMIANDERUSHEGUANGFENLIEWEIDENGQIANGDUDELIANGSHU。TOUSHEGUANGCHUANGUOFENGUANGBANBEIDONGJINGFANSHE,YANYUANLUHUIDAOFENGUANGBANBINGBEIFANSHEDAODAJIANCEQI;FANSHEGUANGTONGLI。ZHEIYANG,ZAIJIANCEQISHANGSUODEDAOTOUSHEGUANGHEFANSHEGUANGDEXIANGGANGUANG。DANGDONGJINGYIYUNSUXIANGFENGUANGBANYIDONGSHI,YEJILIANXUGAIBIANLIANGGUANGSHUDEGUANGCHENGCHASHI,JIUHUIDEDAOGANSHETU。DANGSHIYANGXISHOULEMOUPINLVDENENGLIANG,SUODEDAODEGANSHETUQIANGDUQUXIANJIUHUIFASHENGBIANHUA,TONGGUOJISUANJIJIANGZHEIZHONGGANSHETUJINXINGKUAISUFULIYEBIANHUANHOU,JIKEDEDAOWOMENSHUXIDEHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUTU。

迈克尔逊干涉仪
干涉型红外光谱仪的工作原理图

复盘一下关于红外吸收光谱分析


复盘一下关于红外吸收光谱分析



4. 红外吸收光谱的应用

4.1 HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUDEDINGXINGFENXI

HONGWAIGUANGPUZUIZHONGYAODEYINGYONGSHIZHONGHONGWAIQUYOUJIHUAHEWUDEJIEGOUJIANDING。TONGGUOYUBIAOZHUNPUTUBIJIAO,KEYIQUEDINGHUAHEWUDEJIEGOU;DUIYUWEIZHIYANGPIN,TONGGUOGUANNENGTUAN、SHUNFANYIGOU、QUDAIJIWEIZHI、QINGJIANJIEHEYIJILUOHEWUDEXINGCHENGDENGJIEGOUXINXIKEYITUICEJIEGOU。

4.2 HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUDEDINGLIANGFENXI

YOUYUHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUDEPUDAIJIAODUO,XUANZEYUDIDA,SUOYINENGJIAOFANGBIANDIDUIDANZUFENHUODUOZUFENJINXINGDINGLIANGFENXI。YONGSESANXINGHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUYIJINXINGDINGLIANGFENXISHI,LINGMINDUJIAODI,SHANGBUSHIYUWEILIANGZUFENDECEDING。ERYONGFULIYEBIANHUANHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUYIJINXINGDINGLIANGCEDING,JINGMIDUHEZHUNQUEDUMINGXIANYOUYUSESANXING。JINNIANLAIHONGWAIGUANGPUDEDINGLIANGFENXIYINGYONGYEYOUBUSHAOBAODAO,YOUQISHIJINHONGWAI、YUANHONGWAIQUDEYANJIUBAOGAOZAIZENGJIA。RUJINHONGWAIQUYONGYUHANYOUYUC,N,ODENGYUANZIXIANGLIANJITUANHUAHEWUDEDINGLIANG;YUANHONGWAIQUYONGYUWUJIHUAHEWUYANJIUDENG。

DANYOUYUHONGWAIFUSHENENGLIANGJIAOXIAO,FENXISHIXUYAOJIAOKUANDEGUANGPUTONGDAI,ZAOCHENGSHIYONGDEDAIKUANCHANGCHANGYUXISHOUFENGDEKUANDUZAITONGYIGESHULIANGJI,CONGERCHUXIANXIGUANGDUYUNONGDUJIANDEFEIXIANXINGGUANXI。ERWUZHIDEHONGWAIXISHOUFENGYOUBIJIAODUO,NANYIZHAOCHUBUSHOUGANRAODEJIANCEFENG。YINCI,HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUFAYONGYUDINGLIANGFENXIJIAOSHAO。

SUIZHEHONGWAIGUANGPUYIQIYINGJIANJISHU(MANFANSHE、SHUAIJIANQUANFANSHEDENGPEIJIAN)HEJISUANJIRUANJIANJISHU(RUCHAPUJISHU、HONGWAIGUANGPUPUTUYASUOSHUJUKUJIQIWANGLUOCHUANSHUDENG)DEGAOSUFAZHAN,HONGWAIGUANGPUJISHUDEYINGYONGLINGYUXUNSUTUOKUAN,ZHUJIANPUJIWEICHANGGUIDECESHIJISHU。RUHONGWAIGUANGPUFAZAILINCHUANGYIXUEHEYAOWUFENXIFANGMIANDEDAOLEGUANGFANDEYINGYONG,LINGWAIZAIZAIHUAXUE、HUAGONGFANGMIANDEYINGYONG、ZAIHUANJINGFENXIFANGMIANDEYINGYONG、ZAIBANDAOTIHECHAODAOCAILIAOSHANGDEYINGYONGDOUDEDAOLEGUANGFANDEFAZHAN。

能谱科技致力于傅立叶红外光谱仪,红外测油仪粉尘游离二氧化硅分析仪的研发生产销售多元化高新技术企业;无论是常规检查,还是用于前沿科学研究,在这您一定能找到合适您的理想工具。


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